heart disease symptoms, causes, and treatment

The heart is a muscular organ, which is in the size of a fist and pumps blood throughout a human body. Apart from pumping blood, it pumps oxygen, hormones, and vital substances to different body parts. It receives deoxygenated blood and carries metabolic waste products out from the body. Further, it maintains blood pressure. Any irregularities in its function can cause you heart diseases. As per the World Health Organisation, approximately 2.4 million people die of heart diseases a year. Here have a look at heart disease symptoms, causes, and allied points to educate yourself and stay safe from heart diseases:  

Table of content

  • Types of heart disease
  • Heart disease symptoms
  • Heart disease causes
  • Complications of heart disease
  • Heart disease diagnosis
  • Heart disease treatment
  • Heart disease prevention

Types of heart diseases

Heart disease is an extensive group of heart problems. Several conditions and diseases come under the name of heart diseases. Heart disease types include:

  • CAD (coronary artery disease) – It occurs due the plaque development in the arteries of the heart. Experts call it ischemic heart disease.  
  • Atherosclerosis – It refers to the hardening of the heart.
  • Congenital heart defects – They link to heart irregularities present at the time of birth.  
  • Arrhythmia – It associates with the rhythm abnormality of the heart.
  • Heart infections – Bacteria, parasites, or viruses cause heart infections.
  • Cardiomyopathy – It affects the growth of the heart muscles or causes the heart to harden.
  • Heart failure/heart attack – It refers to a condition in which the heart does not pump the blood as per the body’s needs

Medical experts refer the term cardiovascular disease to heart conditions that cause a bad impact on the blood vessels.

Heart Disease Symptoms

The symptoms of heart diseases depends on the type of heart problems a person has. Some heart conditions do not cause any signs. As per medical experts, you know that you have heart problems if you notice:

  • Breath shortness or difficulty
  • Chest pain or angina
  • Light headedness
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling due to the retention of fluid

Some heart attack symptoms/signs you can experience are as follows:

  • Chest pain
  • Heart palpitations
  • Breathlessness
  • Nausea
  • Sweating
  • Arm, back, jaw, or leg pain
  • Stomach pain
  • A choking sensation
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen ankles
  • An irregular heartbeat
  • Slow pulse
  • Dizziness
  • Numbness or coldness
  • Unexplained or unusual pain
  • Weakness in legs or arms
  • Blue-tinged skin
  • Fever or chills or skin rash

Heart Disease Causes

Heart problems occur to you when you have a damage to one or all heart parts, blood vessel problems, and a lower supply of nutrients. Further, you have a heart issue when you have irregularities in your heart rhythm. Heart disease causes depend on the type of heart problem a person has. However, some common risks and causes of heart diseases are as follows

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Smoking
  • High cholesterol
  • Severe drinking
  • Obesity or overweight
  • Family history of heart problems
  • Dietary choices
  • Age
  • Highly comfortable life with no physical activities
  • Sleep apnoea
  • Leaky heart valves
  • Higher level of stress or anxiety
  • Ethnicity
  • Sex  

Complications of Heart Diseases

Your heart problem can be life threatening for you if you ignore respective signs for a longer period. Some complications you might have are as follows:

  • Heart failure
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Sudden cardiac arrest
  • And allied others

Heart Disease Diagnosis

You should consult a heart specialist when you notice your heart disease symptoms are getting worse. The doctor will interact with you and conduct a physical examination. Further, the specialist might recommend a few tests or screenings that could be:

  • ECG/EKG (Electrocardiogram)
  • Stress test
  • Echocardiogram
  • CT scan
  • Tilt table test
  • Carotid ultrasound
  • Holter monitor
  • Heart MRI

Heart Disease Treatment

After going through the recommended test or screening results, your doctor can advise you the most suitable and effective treatment. Your treatment options can include:

  • Medications
  • Surgeries such as coronary artery bypass surgery, coronary angiography and valve replacement or repair
  • Heart implant
  • Lifestyle changes

Heart Disease Prevention

After knowing the symptoms, causes, and treatment, you might be eager to know how to prevent heart diseases. Here are some useful steps for your support:

  • Eat a healthy and balanced diet
  • Value regular workouts
  • Have a moderate bodyweight
  • Quit or avoid smoking
  • Limit your intake of alcoholic beverages
  • Treat a health problem as it occurs to you
  • Manage your stress or anxiety level   


Heart diseases are common health problems. They are of different types and carry several symptoms. If ignored longer, heart diseases become threatening to one’s life. Knowing the symptoms, causes, complications, and preventive methods can help you stay safe and make a wise decision to treat if it occurs to you.

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